Diamonds or Diamonds in the Rough


Off-Campus Recruiting by Public Research Universities

Karina Salazar

University of Arizona

Ozan Jaquette

University of California, Los Angeles

Crystal Han

University of California, Los Angeles

University of Arizona University of California, Los Angeles

ozanj.github.io/soc_of_ed_presentation

Motivation


Policy discourse about access to public research universities

The problem: access to public research universities

  • Historical mission of social mobility for meritorious state residents
  • Concern about growing socioeconomic and racial inequality in access


Mainstream policy discourse about access: The 2014 White House "Access Summit"

  • The White House (2014a) review of causes of unequal college access
    • "achievement gap", "under-matching"; place responsibility on students, K-12 schools
    • affordability; declining state support leads to rising tuition prices
  • The White House (2014b) asks universities for Commitments to Action on College Opportunity
    • Universities pledge "action plans" (e.g., need-based financial aid, "outreach", holistic admission)


Problem with policy discourse: does not interrogate university enrollment priorities

  • Applauds universities for commitment to access despite "deficiencies" of students and K-12 schools, despite declines in state funding
  • Decades of research finds policy adoption a symbolic effort to appease stakeholders (e.g., Davis, 2005)

Motivation


Analyze recruiting to understand university enrollment priorities

Alternative explanation for access inequality

  • University enrollment priorities biased against poor students and/or communities of color


Why study university recruiting behavior

  • Universities expend substantial resources identifying and recruiting prospects (Noel-Levitz, 2018)
  • Internal resource allocation better indicator of organizational priorities than rhetoric, policies
  • Knowing which student populations targeted by recruiting efforts indicates enrollment priorities


Research focus

  • Analyze off-campus recruiting visits (e.g., visit to a local high school) by public research universities as a means of gaining insight about university enrollment priorities
  • Research question
    • What are the similarities and differences in off-campus recruiting patterns across universities?
  • Analytic focus
    • Income; race; academic achievement; in-state vs. out-of-state

Background


The enrollment management industry

The enrollment funnel

Enrollment Funnel

Interventions along the funnel

  • Identify prospects
    • Buy "student lists" from College Board/ACT
  • Recruit prospects remotely
    • Email, mail, text, etc.
  • Recruit prospects in-person
    • Off-campus recruiting visits (e.g., high school visits, college fairs)
    • Campus visits
    • Other "outreach"
  • Solicit inquiries, stealth applicants
    • Social media, advertising
  • Convert admits to enrollees
    • Financial aid leveraging

Literature review


Scholarship on recruiting

Evaluations of recruiting/outreach interventions (e.g., Dynarski, Libassi, Michelmore, Owen, 2018)

  • But unclear whether universities substantively adopt "best practices" in less controlled settings

Audits of response to "inquiries" by admissions officers (e.g., Hanson, 2017; Thornhill, forthcoming)

  • Identifies biases of individual admissions officers


Off-campus recruiting visits: identify prospects, connect with proespects already targeted by mail/email

  • Scholarship analyzing college perspective (Stevens, 2007)
    • Important for relationships with prospects, counselors at "feeder" schools
  • Market research (Noel-Levitz, 2018)
    • Second highest source of "inquiries" (after student list purchases)
    • Third highest source of enrollees (after stealth applicantsm on-campus visits)
  • Scholarship analyzing perspective of high school students (Holland, 2019)
    • Which universities visit affects student decisions; especially first-gen, students of color

Research gap: we don't know which universities visit which schools, communities

  • If poor students, communities of color not receiving visits, "under-matching" may be due to under-recruiting rather than lack of guidance

Theoretical framework


Enrollment priorities and recruiting behavior

Theoretical motivation for studying recruiting

  • Contingency theory (Thompson, 1967)
    • Technical level: produce outputs (e.g., teachers at school, admissions officers in EM office)
    • Managerial level: procure inputs; direct technical level and "buffer" from external environment
  • "New" institutional theory (Meyer and Rowan, 1977)
    • Publicly adopt goals demanded by environment
    • Technical level cannot pursue all goals
      • Substantively adopt some goals (technical level)
      • Symbolically adopt others (policies, rhetoric)

"Iron triangle" of enrollment management (EM)

  • Three broad enrollment goals: access, academic profile, revenue
    • Scarce resources; depending on priorities, some goals receive more resources than others
  • Enrollment priorities cannot be discerned by policies, rhetoric (e.g., The White House, 2014)
  • Off-campus recruiting is allocation of resources from technical level
    • Knowing which populations targeted by recruiting interventions indicate enrollment priorities

Theoretical framework


Expectations about similarities and differences in recruiting behavior

Resource dependence theory (Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978)

  • Orgs require stable flow of resources from external environment to survive/thrive
  • Sensitive to demands from providers of important resources that cannot be obtained elsewhere
  • Org strategies when a resouce becomes uncertain/declines or demands become onerous
    • e.g., compliance, avoidance, cooptation, resource diversification


Resources public research universities value

  • financial resources (state funding, tuition, research, donations); steady flow of students; prestige, etc.


Resource diversification in response to prolonged decline in important resources

  • Universities with weak state funding
    • Prioritize students that generate tuition revenue
    • More visits to affluent out-of-state, affluent in-state
  • Universities with small/declining "college age" population
    • More out-of-state visits

Research methods


The broader off-campus recruiting research project

Data collection

  • Method
    • Web-scrape admissions websites
    • public records requests
  • Criteria to be included in data collection
    1. Post visits on admissions websites
    2. Organizational type
  • Data collection sample
    • 54 public research universities
    • 49 private research universities
    • 42 selective private liberal arts
  • Data collection period
    • 1/1/2017 to 12/31/2017
    • Ongoing data collection with larger sample

Sample data

Research methods


Defining events

"Off-campus recruiting events" defined as off-campus events hosted by paid staff/consultants focused on soliciting applications


  • Event type
    • Include: college fairs, high school visits, community college visits, counselor events
    • Exclude: admitted or committed student events, interviews
  • Event host
    • Include: paid admissions staff or consultants (e.g. regional recruiters)
    • Exclude: alumni, student volunteers
  • Event location
    • Any off-campus location
    • e.g., high school, community college, hotel, convention center, cafe, etc.

Research methods


Data collection, data processing, data quality

Data collection

  • University website checked four times per year by two staff for URLs with recruiting events
  • Web-scraping scripts run once per week

Data processing

  • "Parsing": transform HTML text into tabular data
  • "Geocoding": use Google Maps API to obtain detailed location data based on limited data
  • Merge recruiting data to secondary data (e.g., schools, communities)

Data quality (are these data any good?)

  • Concern 1: are scraped events properly classified and merged to secondary data?
    • Solution: manually check each scraped event
  • Concern 2: are all events posted on admissions website?
    • Solution: issue public records requests for all off-campus recruiting events
      • Received data from 7 of 15 universities
      • Main analyses use public records data when available
      • Substantive results insensitive to scraped vs. public records data

Research methods


Analysis sample

Analysis sample consists of 15 public research universities

  • Chosen from larger data collection sample (N=54) based on "completeness" of recruiting event data
  • Subsequent drafts may reduce sample size based on principles of purposeful sampling (Patton, 2002)
University Sample Characteristics

Research methods


Research design and analyses

Quantitative mulitple case study research design (Korzilius, 2010)

  • Quantitative data collection and quantitative analyses
  • Analyze each case separately, rather than pooling across cases as in large-N, random sample design


Data analysis (Eisenhardt, 1989; Pratt, Rockmann, and Kaufmann, 2006)

  • "Within-case" analyses of recruiting patterns
    • broad focus on income, race, achievement, in-state vs. out-of-state
    • Situate within local context; "deep dive" of in-state, out-of-state, and overall patterns
      • Simple descriptive statistics (e.g., counts), static visualizations, interactive maps
    • identify first-order empirical themes
  • "Cross-case" analyses
    • Abstract/consolidate first-order findings into broader empirical themes
    • Acrsoss-case descriptive analyses
      • Simple descriptive statistics
      • Controlling for "rational" reasons for visit (e.g., enrollment size, achievement, distance)

Within-case results


Click on a university see within-case results  


N refers to total number of off-campus recruiting visits

Table of Contents

 

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National Overview

 

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In-State Results

State Map

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In-State Results

State Figures

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In-State Results

Metro Area Map

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In-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Out-of-State Results

Top Visited Metro Areas

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Out-of-State Results

 

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Map

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Map

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Cross-university results


Number of events by type and in-state, out-of-state

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh South Carolina
Total Events 649 1,598 1,072 4,270 1,009 907 933 1,361 1,446 874 1,023 1,043 1,421 1,233 1,497
                
Out-of-State 169 941 644 3,886 784 421 168 805 1,068 581 756 722 874 906 1,247
Public High Schools 97 551 467 2,256 478 188 73 483 599 281 433 468 645 559 677
Private High Schools 27 223 98 914 204 134 40 198 357 231 160 214 104 210 328
Other 45 167 79 716 102 99 55 124 112 69 163 40 125 137 242
                
In-State 480 657 428 384 225 486 765 556 378 293 267 321 547 327 250
Public High Schools 310 456 312 150 161 269 337 397 240 197 179 210 446 211 197
Private High Schools 4 74 40 49 21 35 21 79 14 67 21 62 55 51 22
Community Colleges 95 74 18 67 16 121 307 16 92 0 12 31 20 37 2
Other 71 53 58 118 27 61 100 64 32 29 55 18 26 28 29

Deep-dive results

Cross-university results, out-of-state visits


Descriptive statistics for out-of-state visits

NC State  Rutgers  Stony Brook  Alabama  Arkansas  UC Berkeley  UC Irvine  Cincinnati  CU Boulder  Georgia  Kansas  UMass  Nebraska  Pittsburgh  South Carolina
Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit
Public HS Characteristics                            
  Number of High Schools 69 5,186   439 6,641   385 3,601   1,658 13,308   325 6,305   178 10,893   70 7,525   395 8,530   559 12,836   243 9,759   337 9,110   463 9,163   419 6,004   433 7,316   577 11,509
  Miles from University 342 437   699 1,004   197 507   823 837   407 630   1,933 1,917   1,196 1,805   394 722   1,147 1,115   910 843   497 745   694 1,091   374 548   411 614   658 806
  Grade 12 Enrollment 410 201   427 214   329 217   384 170   425 186   459 183   464 191   426 200   430 187   495 200   469 175   384 207   392 144   406 188   431 192
  Median Household Income ($000s) $122.3 $66.7   $112.7 $65.8   $110.6 $66.5   $90.2 $59.8   $86.9 $58.7   $104.4 $62.0   $92.7 $65.9   $101.1 $63.8   $114.8 $62.6   $101.9 $62.3   $95.9 $63.9   $114.7 $63.5   $85.1 $60.8   $113.5 $63.5   $104.7 $63.1
  Percent Free or Reduced Lunch 20.4 49.2   23.5 51.9   22.6 48.2   30.2 51.6   31.4 55.8   23.1 49.2   29.2 46.9   28.6 51.2   20.3 49.5   22.6 50.3   26.4 49.3   21.3 51.7   31.1 46.6   21 50   22.7 50.5
  Percent White 58.8 57.2   56.5 48.2   64.4 58.5   60.2 56.8   57.8 50.1   51.7 57.6   44.1 58.4   57.4 53.4   59.3 56.5   56.4 52.7   62.5 55   61.7 50.8   63.8 67.2   61.6 55.1   61.9 56.5
  Percent Black 14.7 22.1   10.2 15.4   11.9 21.5   13.7 16.3   10.8 16.4   15 18.1   8 15.7   14.9 16.7   6.8 14.9   10.4 16.5   11 12.6   8.5 17.9   10.2 11.6   10.7 18.7   12.1 16.3
  Percent Hispanic 13.2 14.7   16.6 29.6   11.8 14.6   15.8 20.6   19.2 26   15.1 18.1   21 18.3   13.7 23.3   18.4 21.3   18.8 23.2   14.9 24.5   15.4 24.3   16 16.1   13.3 20.4   14.4 21
  Percent Asian 10.1 3.4   13.5 3.9   9.3 2.8   6.7 2.8   6.3 3.1   14.1 2.6   17 3.4   10.6 3.7   11.9 3.3   11 3.1   7.6 3.6   11.8 3.8   6.1 1.7   11.4 2.8   8.2 3.3
  Percent Native American 0.2 0.3   0.2 0.6   0.2 0.3   0.4 1.2   2.5 1.9   0.3 1.2   0.5 1.5   0.2 0.6   0.3 1.3   0.3 1.8   0.6 2   0.2 0.8   0.9 1.1   0.2 0.6   0.3 0.6
  Percent Multiracial 3 2.3   3 2.3   2.3 2.3   3.2 2.4   3.5 2.4   3.8 2.3   9.4 2.7   3.2 2.2   3.3 2.7   3.1 2.6   3.4 2.4   2.4 2.4   2.9 2.3   2.7 2.4   3.1 2.4
  0/1 is a Charter School 0 0.07   0.02 0.11   0.02 0.07   0.03 0.11   0.04 0.1   0.06 0.08   0.03 0.1   0.03 0.1   0.03 0.11   0.05 0.12   0.03 0.11   0.02 0.1   0.02 0.07   0.01 0.06   0.03 0.1
  0/1 is a Magnet School 0.07 0.06   0.08 0.08   0.08 0.09   0.09 0.05   0.05 0.05   0.18 0.06   0.14 0.06   0.11 0.06   0.09 0.05   0.12 0.06   0.04 0.03   0.09 0.07   0.03 0.04   0.08 0.06   0.1 0.06
  0/1 is a Regular School 0.93 0.87   0.91 0.81   0.9 0.85   0.88 0.84   0.91 0.85   0.76 0.86   0.83 0.85   0.86 0.85   0.88 0.84   0.84 0.82   0.93 0.86   0.89 0.84   0.95 0.89   0.91 0.87   0.88 0.84
  In a City 0.14 0.26   0.29 0.31   0.14 0.21   0.24 0.25   0.3 0.24   0.45 0.24   0.5 0.25   0.25 0.28   0.32 0.25   0.4 0.25   0.34 0.25   0.23 0.28   0.31 0.18   0.19 0.26   0.21 0.26
  In a Suburb 0.67 0.35   0.64 0.31   0.74 0.4   0.58 0.24   0.48 0.2   0.48 0.26   0.4 0.32   0.63 0.27   0.61 0.27   0.53 0.29   0.57 0.23   0.67 0.28   0.46 0.17   0.7 0.28   0.68 0.28
  In a Town 0.03 0.11   0.01 0.11   0.01 0.12   0.04 0.15   0.07 0.15   0.02 0.14   0.03 0.13   0.03 0.13   0.01 0.14   0 0.13   0.02 0.14   0.02 0.13   0.1 0.17   0.02 0.12   0.01 0.13
  In a Rural Area 0.16 0.27   0.07 0.28   0.11 0.28   0.14 0.37   0.14 0.41   0.05 0.36   0.07 0.3   0.09 0.32   0.05 0.34   0.07 0.33   0.07 0.37   0.08 0.31   0.14 0.48   0.08 0.33   0.09 0.33
Private HS Characteristics                            
  Number of High Schools 19 1,535   182 1,729   76 1,201   669 2,800   144 1,256   130 2,444   37 1,852   160 2,007   326 2,781   190 2,189   120 1,750   206 2,350   66 951   172 1,828   285 2,660
  Grade 12 Enrollment 161 70   157 64   147 66   125 55   123 59   123 64   187 69   146 63   145 62   134 62   156 66   150 63   169 60   145 62   140 63
  Percent White 69.8 68   67.5 62.4   70 66.2   71 68.4   73.8 65.7   69.8 70   50.4 68.7   73.6 67.2   66 66.8   74 65.8   74.2 66.9   69.3 65.8   76.5 71.2   71.9 68.4   74.3 66.7
  Percent Black 15.1 13.3   9 10.9   7 14.2   7.2 11   7.4 9.7   7.8 11.4   6.1 10.8   8.4 10.5   6.6 10.7   6 11.2   6.9 8.7   6.6 11.2   4 9.6   8.1 11.1   7.2 11.1
  Percent Hispanic 5.8 9   7.9 13.5   10.3 9.3   9.4 9.6   8.6 11.8   8.1 9.2   10.3 9.3   6.2 10.1   10.4 10.2   7.5 11.3   8.8 11.4   9.1 11   9.1 10.1   6.8 10.5   7.4 10.6
  Percent Asian 5.4 5.9   9.6 8.5   9.2 6.5   7.2 6.9   6 8   8.2 5.7   15.3 6.9   7.7 7.6   9.2 7.6   6.8 7.3   5.5 8.3   8.6 7.6   5.1 5.6   8.3 6.2   6.7 7.3
  Percent Native American 0.2 0.3   0.4 0.3   0.2 0.3   0.4 0.5   0.5 0.4   0.6 0.4   1.6 0.5   0.2 0.3   0.4 0.5   0.6 0.4   0.6 0.4   0.4 0.3   1.8 0.4   0.4 0.3   0.3 0.3
  Percent Multiracial 3.7 3.5   5.5 4.4   3.3 3.6   4.8 3.6   3.5 4.4   5.6 3.3   16.3 3.8   3.8 4.2   7.4 4.1   5.2 4.1   4 4.3   5.9 4   3.5 3.1   4.6 3.5   4 4
  In a City 0.32 0.37   0.42 0.45   0.25 0.29   0.49 0.38   0.65 0.44   0.57 0.38   0.54 0.38   0.49 0.43   0.52 0.4   0.61 0.38   0.52 0.46   0.48 0.42   0.62 0.42   0.41 0.41   0.47 0.41
  In a Suburb 0.68 0.45   0.51 0.4   0.67 0.5   0.41 0.38   0.29 0.3   0.36 0.4   0.3 0.45   0.44 0.37   0.4 0.39   0.33 0.41   0.43 0.34   0.41 0.39   0.29 0.33   0.52 0.4   0.45 0.4
  In a Town 0 0.04   0.01 0.03   0 0.04   0.02 0.07   0 0.08   0.01 0.06   0.03 0.04   0.02 0.05   0.02 0.06   0 0.06   0.02 0.07   0.01 0.05   0.02 0.1   0.01 0.04   0.01 0.05
  In a Rural Area 0 0.13   0.07 0.12   0.08 0.17   0.09 0.17   0.06 0.18   0.06 0.16   0.14 0.13   0.04 0.15   0.06 0.14   0.06 0.15   0.02 0.13   0.1 0.14   0.08 0.14   0.06 0.15   0.07 0.14
 
 
 
Deep-dive results

Cross-university results, out-of-state visits


Regression: probability of out-of-state public high school receiving a visit

Probability of receiving a recruiting visit by OUT-OF-STATE high school characteristics
Dependent Variable: Received a recruiting visit (0/1)
NC StateRutgersStony BrookAlabamaArkansasUC BerkeleyUC IrvineCincinnatiCU BoulderGeorgiaKansasUMassNebraskaPittsburghSouth Carolina
Income (ref=<$50k)
50k-74k-0.0003-0.011**-0.033**0.009*0.004-0.003-0.0130.005-0.007***-0.005*-0.003-0.015***-0.002-0.011***0.00001
(0.002)(0.004)(0.011)(0.004)(0.004)(0.002)(0.007)(0.004)(0.002)(0.002)(0.003)(0.004)(0.005)(0.003)(0.003)
75k-99k0.0060.020**-0.0040.086***0.046***0.0060.0160.040***0.027***0.0060.031***0.0120.046***0.031***0.033***
(0.005)(0.007)(0.018)(0.009)(0.010)(0.004)(0.014)(0.008)(0.005)(0.005)(0.007)(0.008)(0.010)(0.008)(0.006)
100k-149k0.050***0.178***0.198***0.224***0.193***0.059***0.213***0.165***0.162***0.050***0.103***0.180***0.185***0.154***0.155***
(0.009)(0.015)(0.025)(0.014)(0.022)(0.009)(0.043)(0.016)(0.011)(0.008)(0.012)(0.015)(0.026)(0.014)(0.012)
150k-199k0.151**0.373***0.448***0.420***0.0760.181***0.1770.334***0.496***0.117***0.119**0.404***0.223*0.480***0.310***
(0.046)(0.050)(0.061)(0.042)(0.048)(0.044)(0.223)(0.053)(0.044)(0.032)(0.038)(0.051)(0.098)(0.050)(0.042)
200k+0.1090.406***0.547***0.513***0.335*0.242**0.480***0.738***0.176**0.169*0.600***0.0560.549***0.274***
(0.078)(0.090)(0.120)(0.075)(0.143)(0.089)(0.111)(0.070)(0.068)(0.075)(0.082)(0.154)(0.095)(0.079)
Unknown-0.0040.0090.0370.0160.005-0.00030.0040.024**0.003-0.000040.016**0.0040.030***0.0130.008
(0.002)(0.008)(0.048)(0.008)(0.005)(0.001)(0.005)(0.009)(0.004)(0.004)(0.006)(0.010)(0.007)(0.009)(0.006)
Black, Hispanic, Native American Enrollment (ref=<20%)
20-39%0.0040.001-0.0210.029***0.028***-0.001-0.0030.0130.0070.0060.019**-0.025*0.024**-0.0020.028***
(0.007)(0.009)(0.019)(0.008)(0.008)(0.004)(0.012)(0.008)(0.005)(0.004)(0.007)(0.010)(0.009)(0.008)(0.007)
40-59%-0.011*-0.028**-0.051*-0.0110.005-0.013***0.0100.012-0.010-0.009-0.009-0.047***-0.002-0.021*-0.008
(0.005)(0.010)(0.021)(0.008)(0.008)(0.004)(0.013)(0.009)(0.006)(0.005)(0.006)(0.010)(0.011)(0.009)(0.007)
60-79%0.008-0.040***-0.078***-0.044***-0.006-0.011*-0.0060.006-0.034***-0.023***-0.024***-0.060***-0.001-0.043***-0.019**
(0.008)(0.011)(0.022)(0.009)(0.009)(0.005)(0.013)(0.009)(0.006)(0.005)(0.006)(0.011)(0.012)(0.008)(0.007)
80-89%0.004-0.059***-0.097***-0.050***-0.022*-0.021***-0.0050.005-0.048***-0.032***-0.029***-0.072***-0.026-0.044***-0.026***
(0.008)(0.010)(0.025)(0.010)(0.009)(0.005)(0.013)(0.010)(0.006)(0.005)(0.007)(0.011)(0.015)(0.010)(0.007)
90%+-0.002-0.064***-0.116***-0.070***-0.024**-0.024***-0.011-0.004-0.048***-0.033***-0.023***-0.081***-0.021-0.052***-0.028***
(0.005)(0.009)(0.019)(0.008)(0.008)(0.004)(0.010)(0.008)(0.005)(0.004)(0.006)(0.009)(0.011)(0.008)(0.006)
Unknown0.001-0.016*-0.007-0.024***-0.017***-0.002-0.215***-0.025***0.014-0.002-0.021***-0.011-0.025***-0.019**-0.003
(0.003)(0.007)(0.048)(0.006)(0.005)(0.002)(0.044)(0.007)(0.016)(0.002)(0.004)(0.006)(0.007)(0.006)(0.003)
Number of 12th Grade Enrollment (ref=<50)
50-99-0.006*-0.008*0.034*0.007*0.014***0.0010.0030.0010.004-0.0010.013***0.0030.025***-0.007-0.001
(0.002)(0.003)(0.014)(0.003)(0.004)(0.002)(0.005)(0.004)(0.002)(0.001)(0.002)(0.004)(0.005)(0.003)(0.002)
100-199-0.002-0.0090.047**0.026***0.036***-0.001-0.0060.001-0.0005-0.00020.019***0.014**0.060***-0.007-0.003
(0.004)(0.005)(0.015)(0.005)(0.006)(0.002)(0.006)(0.004)(0.003)(0.002)(0.004)(0.005)(0.008)(0.005)(0.003)
200-299-0.010*0.024**0.086***0.095***0.056***0.0020.0110.0110.012*-0.0010.032***0.039***0.095***0.0110.016**
(0.005)(0.008)(0.019)(0.008)(0.009)(0.003)(0.014)(0.007)(0.005)(0.003)(0.006)(0.009)(0.012)(0.008)(0.006)
300-3990.018*0.069***0.112***0.189***0.091***0.016**0.070***0.046***0.036***0.025***0.083***0.045***0.152***0.051***0.055***
(0.008)(0.011)(0.022)(0.012)(0.013)(0.005)(0.020)(0.010)(0.007)(0.006)(0.010)(0.010)(0.017)(0.010)(0.008)
400-4990.0180.073***0.162***0.246***0.120***0.045***0.0310.114***0.057***0.057***0.123***0.044**0.186***0.074***0.078***
(0.010)(0.012)(0.027)(0.015)(0.015)(0.008)(0.019)(0.014)(0.009)(0.009)(0.013)(0.014)(0.021)(0.014)(0.011)
500+0.035**0.113***0.175***0.261***0.137***0.064***0.151***0.114***0.115***0.102***0.158***0.093***0.240***0.139***0.153***
(0.012)(0.013)(0.032)(0.015)(0.015)(0.010)(0.035)(0.013)(0.012)(0.010)(0.013)(0.014)(0.024)(0.017)(0.013)
Locale (ref=suburb)
City0.0020.016-0.003-0.0150.0010.027***0.035*-0.0100.025***0.027***0.016*-0.0020.0220.00001-0.006
(0.005)(0.008)(0.016)(0.008)(0.010)(0.005)(0.015)(0.008)(0.006)(0.005)(0.007)(0.008)(0.014)(0.008)(0.006)
Rural0.006-0.030***-0.070***-0.048***-0.033**0.0030.021-0.027***-0.020***-0.0002-0.034***-0.052***-0.034***-0.034***-0.022***
(0.005)(0.008)(0.017)(0.008)(0.010)(0.003)(0.014)(0.007)(0.005)(0.004)(0.007)(0.008)(0.010)(0.007)(0.006)
Town0.007-0.019**-0.069***-0.052***-0.028**0.0060.023-0.018**-0.014***0.001-0.031***-0.045***-0.035**-0.021**-0.022***
(0.005)(0.007)(0.016)(0.008)(0.010)(0.003)(0.012)(0.007)(0.004)(0.003)(0.006)(0.008)(0.011)(0.007)(0.005)
School Type (ref=regular school)
Charter-0.0030.0010.0290.019**0.043***0.0060.0070.027***-0.008*0.0060.024***-0.0020.003-0.0020.016**
(0.002)(0.006)(0.018)(0.007)(0.009)(0.004)(0.007)(0.007)(0.004)(0.004)(0.005)(0.006)(0.010)(0.007)(0.005)
Magnet-0.001-0.0080.047*0.024-0.0150.029***0.194*0.024*0.0150.005-0.0150.021-0.0190.0030.011
(0.007)(0.011)(0.021)(0.013)(0.012)(0.008)(0.084)(0.011)(0.009)(0.008)(0.012)(0.011)(0.015)(0.011)(0.009)
Distance (in 10 miles)-0.001***-0.0002***-0.002***-0.001***-0.001***-0.000050.001**-0.001***-0.0003***-0.0001-0.001***-0.0002***-0.003***-0.0003***-0.0004***
(0.0001)(0.00004)(0.0002)(0.0001)(0.0001)(0.00003)(0.0002)(0.00005)(0.00004)(0.00003)(0.0001)(0.00004)(0.0002)(0.00005)(0.00004)
Constant0.025**0.060***0.128***0.082***0.071***0.006-0.059**0.058***0.044***0.0080.091***0.079***0.166***0.063***0.045***
(0.008)(0.009)(0.021)(0.009)(0.012)(0.007)(0.023)(0.009)(0.007)(0.005)(0.009)(0.010)(0.014)(0.009)(0.007)
Observations5,2557,3412,68314,9666,63011,0711,7377,76913,39511,5239,4477,0616,4237,74912,086
Akaike Inf. Crit.-8,247.449-1,862.4171,170.6113,888.500-2,934.636-15,725.800-1,435.944-3,005.236-8,406.160-13,098.760-6,775.536-1,608.740-1,513.037-2,596.176-5,418.260
Note:*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
Robust standard errors in parentheses. Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not special education school, an alternative school, or a virtual school. Non-visited schools include only out-of-state schools in states that received at least one visit.
Deep-dive results

*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; Dependent Variable: Received a recruiting visit (0/1); Robust standard errors in parentheses; Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten student in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not special education school, an alternative school, or a virtual school.

Cross-university results, out-of-state visits


Small multiple map of recruiting Visits

Cross-university results, in-state visits


Descriptive statistics for in-state visits

NC State  Rutgers  Stony Brook  Alabama  Arkansas  UC Berkeley  UC Irvine  Cincinnati  CU Boulder  Georgia  Kansas  UMass  Nebraska  Pittsburgh  South Carolina
Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit   Visit No Visit
Public HS Characteristics                            
  Number of High Schools 151 353   241 159   218 938   109 232   124 113   244 1,160   230 1,174   343 474   178 135   168 250   141 176   203 145   217 30   185 467   119 90
  Miles from University 87 103   31 34   35 143   99 100   131 137   171 250   133 215   121 155   63 104   84 98   101 163   60 66   112 149   131 155   65 80
  Grade 12 Enrollment 231 171   263 185   318 120   202 100   132 66   446 272   470 269   201 84   250 66   316 207   163 49   215 162   101 27   288 134   264 127
  Number Proficient-Math 105 77   107 60   302 106   50 16   51 20   143 74   128 77   184 82   89 20   143 71   44 11   180 121   58 14   205 76   226 112
  Median Household Income ($000s) $52.5 $52.6   $97.7 $83.4   $103.0 $64.2   $54.8 $44.4   $46.5 $44.7   $86.0 $67.1   $68.7 $70.8   $67.0 $53.1   $74.2 $61.8   $61.5 $50.1   $66.7 $58.2   $95.8 $82.4   $63.4 $62.4   $78.7 $59.1   $53.1 $44.7
  Percent Free or Reduced Lunch 52.7 51.1   33.3 36.7   38.6 55.1   44.9 59.7   59.2 65.6   50.6 58.4   61.6 56.2   40.6 52.9   37.1 45.6   55 68   41.5 46.9   32.7 47.1   37.3 44.2   31.5 51.8   49.8 65.7
  Percent White 55.8 52.6   48.4 50.1   47.5 50.2   64.7 59.8   72.5 71.1   25.6 28.9   17.8 30.4   72.2 75.1   56.2 61.5   43.2 43.6   77.3 80.7   71 60.8   83.4 82   78.3 71   54.1 44.8
  Percent Black 24.2 27.9   18 20.4   14.4 21.6   27 33.3   16.9 21.1   6.1 6.5   8.4 6   18.4 17.2   4.2 3.1   40 42.4   4.7 2.9   8.1 12.8   2.1 3.8   11.4 17.7   36.1 47.4
  Percent Hispanic 12.1 12.6   22.5 23.1   24.4 22.3   4.7 4.2   7 5   48.2 51.9   59.2 49.7   3.5 3.7   32.7 30.7   9.8 9.6   10.9 11.9   12.8 20.5   9.6 7.8   4.2 7.8   5.7 4.9
  Percent Asian 1.9 2.3   9.9 5.3   12.3 4   1.2 0.5   1.2 0.9   15.3 8   11.1 8.9   2 0.7   2.8 1.4   4.1 1.5   1.8 0.7   5.5 3.1   1 0.5   4 1.7   1.3 0.7
  Percent Native American 2.5 1.1   0.1 0.1   0.4 0.7   1.2 1.3   0.8 0.6   0.6 1.2   0.4 1.3   0.1 0.1   1 0.8   0.2 0.2   1.2 1.3   0.2 0.3   2.1 4   0.1 0.1   0.3 0.3
  Percent Multiracial 3.4 3.4   1 1.1   1.1 1.2   1.2 1   1.6 1.3   4.2 3.4   3 3.7   3.7 3.2   3.2 2.5   2.8 2.6   4.2 2.6   2.4 2.5   1.7 1.9   2 1.7   2.5 2
  0/1 is a Charter School 0.02 0.08   0.02 0.08   0 0.04   0 0   0.06 0.04   0.07 0.31   0.07 0.31   0.03 0.17   0.09 0.18   0.04 0.05   0 0.01   0.08 0.12   0 0   0.02 0.13   0.05 0.1
  0/1 is a Magnet School 0.02 0.04   0 0   0.04 0.01   0.03 0.03   0.01 0.02   0.12 0.09   0.16 0.09   0 0   0.01 0.01   0.09 0.08   0.01 0   0 0   0 0   0.01 0   0.19 0.14
  0/1 is a Regular School 0.96 0.88   0.98 0.92   0.96 0.95   0.97 0.97   0.93 0.94   0.81 0.6   0.78 0.6   0.97 0.83   0.9 0.81   0.88 0.87   0.99 0.99   0.92 0.88   1 1   0.97 0.87   0.76 0.77
  In a City 0.14 0.28   0.11 0.12   0.32 0.47   0.17 0.1   0.08 0.11   0.46 0.41   0.45 0.41   0.18 0.21   0.35 0.21   0.17 0.2   0.16 0.06   0.14 0.21   0.08 0.07   0.12 0.23   0.15 0.13
  In a Suburb 0.17 0.19   0.8 0.74   0.62 0.13   0.18 0.06   0.08 0.04   0.47 0.36   0.49 0.36   0.43 0.19   0.31 0.11   0.42 0.28   0.11 0.01   0.68 0.63   0.04 0   0.66 0.27   0.35 0.2
  In a Town 0.17 0.11   0.01 0.04   0.01 0.1   0.14 0.13   0.33 0.07   0.04 0.1   0.03 0.11   0.14 0.18   0.15 0.1   0.17 0.16   0.28 0.15   0.02 0.03   0.17 0.07   0.11 0.14   0.13 0.14
  In a Rural Area 0.53 0.41   0.08 0.11   0.05 0.3   0.5 0.71   0.51 0.78   0.03 0.13   0.03 0.13   0.25 0.42   0.19 0.57   0.24 0.37   0.46 0.78   0.16 0.12   0.71 0.87   0.1 0.36   0.37 0.52
CC Characteristics                            
  Number of Colleges 41 19   17 7   10 61   20 6   14 10   93 34   95 32   15 60   12 5   0 27   10 16   15 13   6 2   10 39   2 19
  Miles from University 111 100   36 34   44 175   107 103   148 149   240 230   194 209   155 149   93 88   -- 110   160 143   59 63   136 146   144 137   71 70
  Enrollment by FTE 3,517 2,037   6,791 439   12,415 1,931   2,524 2,279   1,546 1,468   8,658 3,374   8,807 2,600   4,728 873   4,227 2,196   -- 3,706   2,157 2,145   4,087 312   4,654 189   6,298 820   2,519 3,378
  Median Household Income ($000s) $43.7 $42.9   $86.4 $80.9   $93.3 $56.7   $36.6 $41.0   $39.1 $37.7   $73.1 $58.2   $72.3 $59.7   $42.9 $50.1   $48.5 $46.4   -- $38.2   $44.7 $49.8   $68.0 $79.1   $40.9 $37.0   $66.9 $54.6   $35.3 $37.4
  Percent Pell 62.9 66.9   52.6 47.9   59.2 64.2   65.8 54.8   71.1 76.1   49.7 57.5   50.1 56.8   60.8 64.8   55.8 38.6   -- 75.5   51 54.2   57.9 53.9   51.2 63.5   47.9 64.7   70 66.1
  Percent White 63.4 54.2   43.2 56.5   32.8 60.4   59.7 47.9   70.8 57.2   23.2 28.6   22.8 30.2   73.9 82.2   56.9 43.3   -- 48.1   60 62.3   55.5 67.2   69.5 45.6   67.3 81   45.3 52
  Percent Black 18.1 24.4   15.4 13.4   19 17.4   30.1 44.7   17.6 27.7   6 7.7   5.9 8.2   10.6 11.1   6.1 6.2   -- 38.2   13.3 9.7   12.8 21.1   4.2 0   10.3 9   41.7 36.3
  Percent Hispanic 8.5 6.5   25.7 18   32.5 11.3   4 2.4   7 6.9   46.9 48.4   47.5 46.6   5.3 2.2   22.2 26.3   -- 7.3   15 12.8   19.5 4.3   14.4 3.9   6.5 5.3   3.2 4.2
  Percent Asian 9.2 6.4   75.2 4.1   268.2 12.1   7.2 8   2.7 3.2   138.5 50.5   142.1 33.3   7 1.8   9.1 8.6   -- 13.7   7.7 8.9   32.7 2.8   13.2 0   27.4 6.8   6 9.4
  Percent Native American 1.2 4.4   0.4 0.3   0.4 0.6   1 0.7   0.6 1.1   0.5 0.6   0.4 0.7   0.5 0.2   1.3 1.2   -- 0.4   1.9 1.3   0.4 0   0.8 47.2   0.6 0.1   0.8 0.5
  Percent Multiracial 3.1 2   2.2 2   1.8 3.9   1.9 1.8   2.1 4.8   4.6 3.5   4.6 3.7   3.6 2.1   4.4 7   -- 2   3.8 5.2   2.9 3.1   2.1 1.1   3.3 2.3   2.5 2.9
  In a City 0.24 0.16   0.12 0   0.4 0.16   0.25 0.5   0.07 0.3   0.44 0.35   0.45 0.31   0.33 0.12   0.33 0.6   -- 0.33   0 0.25   0.33 0   0.5 0   0.2 0.13   0 0.32
  In a Suburb 0.17 0.11   0.47 0.71   0.6 0.34   0 0.17   0.07 0.1   0.44 0.38   0.45 0.34   0.13 0.27   0.25 0   -- 0.26   0 0   0.47 0.92   0 0   0.5 0.36   0.5 0.16
  In a Town 0.27 0.26   0.06 0   0 0.16   0.4 0   0.5 0.4   0.02 0.12   0.01 0.16   0.2 0.22   0.42 0   -- 0.22   0.8 0.5   0.07 0   0.5 0   0.1 0.21   0 0.26
  In a Rural Area 0.32 0.47   0.35 0.29   0 0.33   0.35 0.33   0.36 0.2   0.1 0.15   0.08 0.19   0.33 0.4   0 0.4   -- 0.19   0.2 0.25   0.13 0.08   0 1   0.2 0.31   0.5 0.26
Deep-dive results

Cross-university results, in-state visits


Regression: probability of in-state public high school receiving a visit

Probability of receiving a recruiting visit by IN-STATE high school characteristics
Dependent Variable: Received a recruiting visit (0/1)
NC StateRutgersStony BrookAlabamaArkansasUC BerkeleyUC IrvineCincinnatiCU BoulderGeorgiaKansasUMassNebraskaPittsburghSouth Carolina
Income (ref=<$50k)
50k-74k-0.108*-0.077-0.020-0.0370.0260.072***-0.049*0.0700.129*-0.0330.0810.160-0.0250.0070.034
(0.044)(0.106)(0.020)(0.058)(0.078)(0.021)(0.024)(0.036)(0.063)(0.062)(0.059)(0.104)(0.076)(0.034)(0.076)
75k-99k0.081-0.0640.0040.0950.1450.102***-0.0530.314***0.1520.0220.206*0.136-0.1470.203***0.142
(0.101)(0.114)(0.036)(0.115)(0.281)(0.029)(0.031)(0.053)(0.081)(0.114)(0.093)(0.111)(0.112)(0.056)(0.133)
100k-149k-0.1310.0140.115***0.092*-0.106*0.421***0.1140.1310.468***0.242*-0.0800.323***0.328*
(0.136)(0.121)(0.034)(0.042)(0.042)(0.065)(0.091)(0.132)(0.133)(0.113)(0.113)(0.074)(0.143)
150k-199k0.2200.324**0.363***-0.278***0.372**0.347*0.422***
(0.147)(0.107)(0.098)(0.057)(0.119)(0.143)(0.126)
200k+0.264-0.082-0.095-0.301***-0.584***
(0.159)(0.180)(0.133)(0.059)(0.133)
Unknown0.0780.404**-0.027-0.005-0.1510.092-0.0240.1400.2190.077-0.1790.387-0.303-0.077-0.103
(0.110)(0.139)(0.053)(0.098)(0.135)(0.047)(0.044)(0.102)(0.147)(0.149)(0.160)(0.215)(0.188)(0.129)(0.093)
Black, Hispanic, Native American Enrollment (ref=<20%)
20-39%-0.128*0.0750.127**-0.067-0.1530.0020.0190.096-0.0340.0310.0400.0830.0800.0340.299**
(0.060)(0.072)(0.041)(0.061)(0.084)(0.044)(0.032)(0.058)(0.056)(0.078)(0.062)(0.086)(0.059)(0.062)(0.111)
40-59%-0.0620.1170.131*-0.088-0.1650.0750.098**0.0520.0120.045-0.0780.110-0.147-0.0430.075
(0.072)(0.094)(0.056)(0.084)(0.113)(0.046)(0.034)(0.072)(0.079)(0.082)(0.094)(0.120)(0.131)(0.073)(0.110)
60-79%-0.0720.237**0.0480.043-0.0500.0400.118**0.0140.0020.147-0.238*0.161-0.068-0.179*0.063
(0.077)(0.088)(0.062)(0.109)(0.192)(0.046)(0.038)(0.082)(0.078)(0.098)(0.108)(0.134)(0.214)(0.085)(0.134)
80-89%-0.1500.0380.0070.047-0.3290.0630.120**0.0350.156-0.069-0.198-0.152-0.252-0.1070.328*
(0.106)(0.157)(0.061)(0.134)(0.172)(0.049)(0.046)(0.086)(0.109)(0.112)(0.395)(0.147)(0.163)(0.082)(0.137)
90%+-0.1320.083-0.100-0.231***-0.1640.150**0.180***0.200**-0.0440.230*-0.104-0.2150.003-0.006
(0.090)(0.115)(0.055)(0.066)(0.169)(0.049)(0.042)(0.077)(0.110)(0.103)(0.153)(0.298)(0.067)(0.127)
Unknown0.115*0.071-0.185***0.163***
(0.046)(0.171)(0.040)(0.038)
Number of Students Proficient in Math (ref=<50)
50-99-0.0040.0490.021-0.0200.2320.0220.0550.121*0.0760.174*-0.1170.0730.0770.006-0.144
(0.064)(0.069)(0.023)(0.096)(0.121)(0.032)(0.036)(0.053)(0.081)(0.079)(0.100)(0.103)(0.072)(0.037)(0.135)
100-1990.0370.0980.112**0.200-0.0980.086*0.0510.0880.0940.300**-0.604***0.241-0.0080.213***-0.234
(0.095)(0.079)(0.043)(0.129)(0.210)(0.041)(0.045)(0.072)(0.078)(0.097)(0.163)(0.136)(0.117)(0.056)(0.231)
200-2990.0590.256**0.182*0.1870.394*0.139*0.123*0.0190.0610.335*-0.512**0.2490.0440.369***-0.279
(0.149)(0.092)(0.093)(0.182)(0.198)(0.058)(0.062)(0.109)(0.117)(0.141)(0.161)(0.175)(0.185)(0.089)(0.263)
300-399-0.0180.1830.382**0.1310.0690.214*-0.0100.1810.491**0.501*-0.0320.487***-0.463
(0.200)(0.180)(0.121)(0.290)(0.087)(0.093)(0.131)(0.104)(0.180)(0.214)(0.199)(0.131)(0.310)
400+0.5540.359**0.678***0.3430.1320.197-0.0470.1750.3530.644*-0.0270.548**-0.789*
(0.398)(0.123)(0.159)(0.345)(0.140)(0.118)(0.136)(0.113)(0.221)(0.252)(0.253)(0.177)(0.374)
Unknown-0.119*-0.311-0.046-0.159-0.052*-0.025-0.085-0.070-0.049-0.039-0.260*-0.112-0.123
(0.050)(0.182)(0.142)(0.215)(0.021)(0.033)(0.062)(0.097)(0.094)(0.112)(0.130)(0.240)(0.078)
Number of 12th Grade Enrollment (ref=<50)
50-990.251***0.009-0.0070.167**0.206*-0.004-0.0110.106*0.299***0.211**0.314***0.249*0.1280.0580.286*
(0.067)(0.126)(0.023)(0.056)(0.080)(0.020)(0.019)(0.050)(0.085)(0.074)(0.088)(0.118)(0.087)(0.035)(0.133)
100-1990.296***0.153-0.0470.267***0.244*0.007-0.0080.300***0.506***0.205**0.552***0.1670.237*0.0680.696**
(0.060)(0.118)(0.037)(0.064)(0.116)(0.020)(0.021)(0.071)(0.100)(0.069)(0.088)(0.132)(0.121)(0.047)(0.214)
200-2990.324***0.2010.0080.753***0.2960.0580.0460.414***0.582***0.289***0.479***0.0250.374*0.1100.937***
(0.082)(0.128)(0.083)(0.105)(0.169)(0.030)(0.033)(0.098)(0.102)(0.085)(0.120)(0.159)(0.179)(0.068)(0.240)
300-3990.394***0.242-0.1160.471***0.174***0.122**0.581***0.633***0.359***0.897***0.0870.2240.1420.945***
(0.108)(0.124)(0.107)(0.136)(0.039)(0.042)(0.120)(0.094)(0.103)(0.097)(0.190)(0.256)(0.091)(0.272)
400-4990.2640.217-0.357*0.485*0.593**0.114**0.117**0.680***0.527***0.357**0.880***0.0380.3710.1051.323***
(0.146)(0.140)(0.152)(0.189)(0.195)(0.041)(0.044)(0.128)(0.131)(0.128)(0.151)(0.222)(0.210)(0.140)(0.305)
500+0.2830.216-0.2370.868***0.567*0.173***0.184***0.431**0.505***0.2701.265***-0.1350.4690.2681.622***
(0.210)(0.149)(0.171)(0.147)(0.263)(0.040)(0.046)(0.162)(0.133)(0.139)(0.200)(0.320)(0.269)(0.166)(0.381)
Locale (ref=suburb)
City-0.0770.039-0.211***-0.209*-0.2730.002-0.0260.0460.026-0.014-0.029-0.024-0.0050.0490.035
(0.067)(0.102)(0.049)(0.102)(0.191)(0.022)(0.024)(0.060)(0.065)(0.076)(0.088)(0.088)(0.087)(0.056)(0.092)
Rural0.088-0.123-0.106**-0.145-0.077-0.036-0.064*-0.117**-0.136-0.020-0.0020.0130.237-0.173***0.030
(0.060)(0.081)(0.040)(0.095)(0.174)(0.029)(0.031)(0.045)(0.079)(0.072)(0.086)(0.082)(0.144)(0.045)(0.088)
Town0.139-0.195-0.127***-0.2010.202-0.033-0.078*-0.0280.0050.129-0.011-0.1300.150-0.0360.001
(0.076)(0.154)(0.038)(0.107)(0.165)(0.032)(0.032)(0.051)(0.105)(0.086)(0.087)(0.166)(0.152)(0.058)(0.116)
School Type (ref=regular school)
Charter-0.114-0.1560.0380.253-0.041*-0.065**-0.156**-0.1000.024-0.1450.109-0.0720.236
(0.072)(0.137)(0.033)(0.158)(0.019)(0.024)(0.052)(0.097)(0.117)(0.119)(0.096)(0.046)(0.134)
Magnet-0.0580.224**0.0430.039-0.0090.002-0.035-0.0180.428*0.3760.021
(0.093)(0.072)(0.133)(0.317)(0.035)(0.040)(0.346)(0.090)(0.183)(0.255)(0.089)
Distance (in 10 miles)-0.012**-0.002-0.014***-0.0010.005-0.006***-0.0001-0.016***0.0004-0.002-0.007*-0.024*-0.005-0.013***-0.032***
(0.004)(0.014)(0.001)(0.005)(0.006)(0.001)(0.001)(0.002)(0.005)(0.005)(0.003)(0.011)(0.003)(0.002)(0.009)
Constant0.238*0.3550.403***0.270*0.3620.0810.0430.307***0.169-0.0830.272**0.2410.696***0.276***0.149
(0.100)(0.181)(0.048)(0.118)(0.193)(0.052)(0.052)(0.066)(0.110)(0.125)(0.103)(0.156)(0.180)(0.058)(0.171)
Observations5044001,1563412371,4041,404817313418317348247652209
Akaike Inf. Crit.607.144562.574376.121371.201331.899962.4721,025.529822.742303.208557.146347.948481.604184.075480.002255.709
Note:*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001
Robust standard errors in parentheses. Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten student in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not special education school, an alternative school, or a virtual school.
Deep-dive results

*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; Dependent Variable: Received a recruiting visit (0/1); Robust standard errors in parentheses; Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten student in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not special education school, an alternative school, or a virtual school.

Summary


Summary of results

Out of State Recruiting

  • Majority of visits are out-of-state (exceptions: NC State, UC Irvine, UC Berkeley)
  • Big income bias; visits concentrated in highly affluent communities, in metropolitan areas
  • Big racial bias; less likely to visit schools with predominantly Black/Hispanic/Native students
  • Disproportionate number of visits to private high schools

In-State Recruiting

  • Variation in coverage of public high schools (e.g., Nebraska=88%; Alabama=32%), community colleges
  • Visits largely driven by either achievement or enrollment size
  • Income bias in most cases (but less than out-of-state) even after controlling for "rational" reasons
    • Exceptions: NC State, UC Irvine
  • Bias against schools with predominantly Black/Hispanic/Native in some cases (e.g., U. Alabama)

Overall similarities and differences

  • For most cases, limited in-state recruiting and expansive out-of-state recruiting in big metro areas
    • But differences in which metro areas, regions of country visited
  • Universities with higher state funding: fewer out-of-state visits; better, equitable coverage of in-state

Discussion


Next steps, implications, future research

Next steps for this paper

  • Complete cross-case holistic analysis of recruiting; develop recruiting "types"


Implications

  • Results suggest dramatic income bias in enrollment priorities of public research universities
    • Evidence of racial bias (especially in out-of-state recruiting), but patterns more nuanced
  • Policy discourse should focus on enrollment priorities, rather than student, K-12 deficiencies
    • "Under-matching" may be a function of under-recruiting

Future research

  • Manuscript that focuses on racial biases in off-campus recruiting visits
    • Universities prioritizing middle-class students of color and "privileged poor" (Jack, 2016) enrolled in high-resource schools, but ignoring traditional public schools that are majority-minority?
  • Collect/analyze data on other means used to identify and target prospects
    • Characteristics universities prioritize when purchasing "prospect lists" from College Board/ACT?
    • Experimental audits of university responses to "inquiries" with different characteristics

Acknowledgments



This research was made possible by funding from the following sources:


  • National Academy of Education/Spencer Foundation (Postdoctoral Fellowship)
  • American Educational Research Association (Dissertation Grant)
  • UCLA Office of Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (Faculty Career Development Award)
  • Joyce Foundation (Research Grant)

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