Recruiting the Out-of-State University


Off-Campus Recruiting by Public Research Universities

University of Alabama

Crystal Han, UCLA

Ozan Jaquette, UCLA

Karina Salazar, University of Arizona

Prepared for:

Joyce Foundation Report

* These slides only contain interactive results to supplement the report. For full report, please see above link.

Analysis Sample


Median Characteristics of Study Sample versus Population of Public Institutions

Sample (N = 15) Population (N = 80)
Academic Profile
US News & World Report Ranking9294
25th Percentile SAT/ACT Composite Score1,1261,085
75th Percentile SAT/ACT Composite Score1,3341,300
Enrollment
Total Enrolled Freshmen5,4334,957
Percent Out-of-State Freshmen26.9%25.4%
Percent Pell Recipients20.3%24.0%
Tuition and Fees
In-State Tuition + Fees$11,706$11,026
Out-of-State Tuition + Fees$30,414$29,441
Revenues
Total Net Tuition Revenue$463,142,400$379,065,984
Percent of Total Revenue from Tuition25.5%26.3%
Total State Appropriations$286,740,832$267,926,000
Appropriation per Student$9,548$7,903
Percent of Total Revenue from State Appropriations19.5%16.7%
Total State Revenue$295,350,848$290,634,448
Revenue per Student$11,347$8,970
Percent of Total Revenue from State (All Sources)21.1%19.4%

Note: Author calculations based on 2016-2017 IPEDS. Population of universities includes universities categorized as Highest Research Activity by 2015 Carnegie Classification. The University of Alabama is the only institution in the study sample that is not classified as Highest Research Activity.

State and Institutional Context


State and Tuition Revenue per FTE Student for Sample Institutions in 2016-17

Data and Methods


Summary of Data Collection Sources and Quality Checks Performed

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Web-scrape data collection
Scraped data on off-campus recruiting events?YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Manually checked each scraped event?YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Public records request data collection
Requested data from Enrollment Management VP from university?YYYYYYYYYYYYYYY
Received data from Enrollment Management VP?NNNNNNNNNYNNNNN
State law allows nonresidents to request from public universities?YNYAmbiguousNYYYYNYYYNY
Made public records request to university?YYYYYYYYYNYYYYY
Received public records data from university (by 3/18/2019)?YYYNNNYYY-YYNNN
Manually checked each visit from requested data?NYY---YYYYYY---
Data used in report analyses
Web-scrape data is primary data source?YNNYYYNNNNNNYYY
Public records data used as primary data source?NYYNNNYYYYYYNNN

Within-case results


Click on a university see within-case results

N refers to total number of off-campus recruiting visits

Table of Contents

 

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National Overview

 

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In-State Results

State Map

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In-State Results

State Figures

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In-State Results

Metro Area Map

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In-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Out-of-State Results

Top Visited Metro Areas

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Out-of-State Results

 

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Map

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Map

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Out-of-State Results

Metro Area Figures

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Cross-university results


Number of events by type and in-state, out-of-state

Total Events Out-of-State In-State
Total Pub HS Priv HS Other Total Pub HS Priv HS CC Other
NC State 371 124 72 20 32 247 157 3 55 32
Rutgers 1,629 954 560 231 163 675 477 72 89 37
Stony Brook 1,101 666 496 107 63 435 326 39 33 37
Alabama 4,349 3,957 2,312 934 711 392 157 54 124 57
Arkansas 1,013 788 483 204 101 225 162 21 16 26
UC Berkeley 906 420 188 134 98 486 269 35 121 61
UC Irvine 939 172 77 40 55 767 330 20 322 95
Cincinnati 1,369 815 491 204 120 554 408 79 22 45
CU Boulder 1,568 1,102 607 362 133 466 256 17 154 39
Georgia 885 587 287 233 67 298 203 69 1 25
Kansas 1,419 1,004 613 213 178 415 304 22 28 61
UMass 1,137 784 504 230 50 353 238 62 36 17
Nebraska 1,421 875 646 104 125 546 445 55 20 26
Pittsburgh 1,233 906 559 210 137 327 211 51 37 28
S.Carolina 1,495 1,245 676 328 241 250 197 22 2 29

Cross-university results


National Overview of Recruiting

Cross-university results, out-of-state


Descriptive statistics for public high school visits

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit
Number of High Schools705,1854456,6354073,6131,71113,2553296,30117810,893747,5214018,71757512,8202499,3334388,0904968,7974206,0034337,31657611,510
Miles from University3394377171,0031965068318364066301,9331,9171,1551,8054067201,1391,1169208085196856751,102374548411614658806
Grade 12 Enrollment403201428214332215384169427186459183471191430199431186490201458172380208391144406188431192
Median Household Income ($000)$121$67$113$66$110$66$90$60$87$59$104$62$93$66$101$64$115$63$102$62$96$62$115$64$85$61$114$64$105$63
Percent Free or Reduced Lunch21.549.222.952.022.848.830.451.731.455.823.149.229.346.928.350.920.549.522.651.226.149.621.451.731.146.621.050.022.650.5
Percent Enrollment by Race
Black, Latinx, Native American28.737.126.245.624.037.030.338.032.544.330.437.429.935.528.940.525.437.629.640.925.438.224.543.627.128.824.339.726.737.9
White58.757.257.148.264.758.059.956.857.850.151.757.644.558.457.153.659.256.556.153.463.656.161.650.163.967.261.655.161.956.5
Black15.922.110.115.411.822.113.816.310.816.415.018.18.115.714.616.76.614.910.317.19.811.78.517.710.211.610.718.712.016.3
Latinx12.614.715.929.612.014.616.120.519.226.015.118.121.318.314.023.218.521.319.022.315.024.315.725.016.016.113.320.414.421.0
Native American0.20.30.20.60.20.30.41.22.51.90.31.20.51.50.20.60.31.30.31.50.52.20.20.80.91.10.20.60.30.6
Asian9.73.413.73.99.02.86.72.86.23.114.12.616.43.410.83.712.03.311.23.27.63.211.53.96.11.711.42.88.23.3
Other Race2.92.33.02.32.32.33.22.43.52.43.82.39.12.73.22.23.42.73.12.63.42.52.42.52.92.32.72.43.12.4
School Type
0/1 is a Charter School0.010.070.020.110.020.070.040.110.040.100.060.080.030.100.030.100.030.110.050.100.010.120.020.100.020.070.010.060.030.10
0/1 is a Magnet School0.070.060.080.080.070.090.090.050.050.050.180.060.140.060.110.060.090.050.120.060.030.030.090.070.030.040.080.060.100.06
0/1 is a Regular School0.910.870.900.810.900.840.880.840.910.850.760.860.840.850.860.850.880.840.830.840.950.850.890.840.950.890.910.870.880.84
Locale
In a City0.170.260.290.310.140.220.250.250.300.240.450.240.510.250.250.270.320.250.410.240.330.220.220.280.310.180.190.260.210.26
In a Suburb0.640.350.640.310.730.390.580.230.490.200.480.260.390.320.630.280.620.270.520.290.560.220.680.280.460.170.700.280.680.28
In a Town0.030.110.010.110.010.120.040.150.070.150.020.140.030.130.030.130.010.140.000.130.030.160.020.120.100.170.020.120.010.13
In a Rural Area0.160.270.070.280.110.270.130.370.140.410.050.360.070.300.090.320.050.340.070.340.080.400.080.310.140.480.080.330.090.33

Note: Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, alternative school, virtual school, or independent school; is an open status school and reports enrollment to the Federal Department of Education. Non-visited schools include only out-of-state schools in states that received at least one high school visit.

Cross-university results, out-of-state


Probability of out-of-state public high school receiving a visit

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Income
(ref=<$50k)
$50k-$74k-0.001
(0.002)
-0.011**
(0.004)
-0.020**
(0.007)
0.004
(0.004)
0.002
(0.004)
-0.003
(0.002)
-0.001
(0.002)
0.001
(0.003)
-0.008***
(0.002)
-0.004
(0.003)
-0.003
(0.004)
-0.011***
(0.003)
0.001
(0.005)
-0.010**
(0.003)
-0.001
(0.003)
$75k-$99k0.005
(0.005)
0.019*
(0.008)
0.016
(0.013)
0.081***
(0.009)
0.044***
(0.010)
0.006
(0.004)
0.006
(0.004)
0.030***
(0.007)
0.024***
(0.005)
0.008
(0.006)
0.051***
(0.008)
0.022**
(0.007)
0.049***
(0.010)
0.032***
(0.008)
0.031***
(0.006)
$100k-$149k0.047***
(0.009)
0.173***
(0.014)
0.185***
(0.021)
0.207***
(0.014)
0.184***
(0.023)
0.060***
(0.009)
0.042***
(0.008)
0.115***
(0.012)
0.170***
(0.011)
0.068***
(0.011)
0.183***
(0.017)
0.178***
(0.013)
0.191***
(0.025)
0.153***
(0.014)
0.155***
(0.012)
$150k-$199k0.166***
(0.047)
0.393***
(0.050)
0.433***
(0.057)
0.415***
(0.041)
0.066
(0.047)
0.193***
(0.045)
0.033
(0.020)
0.276***
(0.045)
0.501***
(0.044)
0.168***
(0.041)
0.231***
(0.051)
0.444***
(0.049)
0.225*
(0.089)
0.480***
(0.050)
0.314***
(0.043)
$200k+0.104
(0.077)
0.398***
(0.089)
0.482***
(0.120)
0.481***
(0.075)
0.398**
(0.141)
0.241**
(0.089)
0.005
(0.005)
0.248***
(0.075)
0.766***
(0.066)
0.362***
(0.108)
0.385**
(0.118)
0.654***
(0.078)
0.084
(0.129)
0.550***
(0.095)
0.265***
(0.079)
BL, LX, NA Enrollment
(ref=<20%)
20-39%0.002
(0.006)
0.001
(0.010)
-0.010
(0.015)
0.030***
(0.008)
0.026**
(0.008)
-0.002
(0.004)
-0.004
(0.004)
0.012
(0.007)
0.007
(0.005)
0.003
(0.005)
0.028***
(0.007)
-0.016*
(0.008)
0.023*
(0.009)
-0.001
(0.008)
0.026***
(0.007)
40-59%-0.012*
(0.005)
-0.038***
(0.010)
-0.028
(0.016)
-0.011
(0.008)
-0.00004
(0.008)
-0.015***
(0.004)
0.002
(0.005)
0.012
(0.008)
-0.015**
(0.006)
-0.011*
(0.005)
-0.016*
(0.007)
-0.030***
(0.008)
0.002
(0.011)
-0.020*
(0.009)
-0.010
(0.007)
60-79%0.007
(0.008)
-0.048***
(0.011)
-0.054**
(0.017)
-0.047***
(0.009)
-0.007
(0.009)
-0.013**
(0.005)
-0.004
(0.005)
-0.0004
(0.009)
-0.036***
(0.006)
-0.027***
(0.005)
-0.032***
(0.008)
-0.040***
(0.008)
0.011
(0.012)
-0.040***
(0.008)
-0.021**
(0.007)
80-89%0.005
(0.009)
-0.070***
(0.011)
-0.078***
(0.020)
-0.042***
(0.011)
-0.022*
(0.009)
-0.021***
(0.005)
-0.011*
(0.005)
-0.007
(0.009)
-0.052***
(0.006)
-0.035***
(0.006)
-0.034***
(0.009)
-0.056***
(0.008)
-0.023
(0.014)
-0.042***
(0.010)
-0.028***
(0.007)
90%+-0.0004
(0.005)
-0.075***
(0.010)
-0.087***
(0.015)
-0.073***
(0.008)
-0.026**
(0.008)
-0.027***
(0.004)
-0.011**
(0.004)
-0.012
(0.007)
-0.051***
(0.005)
-0.036***
(0.005)
-0.032***
(0.007)
-0.062***
(0.007)
-0.006
(0.011)
-0.050***
(0.008)
-0.031***
(0.006)
# Math Proficient Students
(ref=<50)
50-99-0.004*
(0.002)
-0.012*
(0.005)
0.003
(0.013)
-0.004
(0.005)
-0.003
(0.006)
-0.003
(0.002)
-0.0005
(0.003)
-0.006
(0.004)
-0.005
(0.003)
-0.003
(0.002)
-0.005
(0.005)
0.007
(0.005)
0.061***
(0.009)
-0.004
(0.005)
-0.004
(0.003)
100-1990.0003
(0.004)
-0.004
(0.009)
-0.014
(0.014)
0.028***
(0.008)
0.018
(0.010)
-0.0004
(0.004)
-0.008
(0.004)
-0.011
(0.007)
0.0002
(0.006)
0.003
(0.004)
-0.014
(0.008)
0.001
(0.007)
0.070***
(0.013)
-0.006
(0.007)
-0.007
(0.005)
200-2990.012
(0.007)
0.019
(0.014)
0.003
(0.020)
0.056***
(0.014)
0.029
(0.018)
0.005
(0.007)
-0.014*
(0.007)
-0.037***
(0.011)
-0.006
(0.010)
0.022*
(0.008)
-0.015
(0.015)
0.011
(0.011)
0.078***
(0.021)
0.011
(0.013)
-0.011
(0.010)
300-3990.014
(0.011)
-0.022
(0.017)
0.022
(0.025)
0.053**
(0.019)
0.088***
(0.027)
0.005
(0.010)
-0.017
(0.010)
-0.024
(0.016)
-0.001
(0.014)
0.045***
(0.013)
-0.028
(0.021)
0.032*
(0.015)
-0.013
(0.025)
0.007
(0.017)
0.033*
(0.015)
400+0.030**
(0.011)
-0.001
(0.016)
-0.043*
(0.019)
0.137***
(0.020)
0.003
(0.026)
0.011
(0.011)
-0.028**
(0.009)
-0.011
(0.017)
-0.034**
(0.013)
0.004
(0.012)
-0.149***
(0.015)
0.022
(0.013)
-0.098***
(0.023)
-0.060***
(0.016)
0.068***
(0.016)
# G12 Students
(ref=<50)
50-99-0.003
(0.002)
-0.001
(0.004)
0.014
(0.009)
0.006
(0.004)
0.014***
(0.004)
0.001
(0.002)
0.006**
(0.002)
0.001
(0.003)
0.004
(0.002)
-0.001
(0.002)
0.014***
(0.003)
-0.005
(0.004)
0.006
(0.005)
-0.004
(0.004)
0.001
(0.002)
100-199-0.001
(0.004)
-0.001
(0.006)
0.016
(0.011)
0.015**
(0.005)
0.032***
(0.006)
-0.0004
(0.002)
0.009**
(0.003)
0.006
(0.005)
-0.001
(0.003)
-0.002
(0.003)
0.036***
(0.006)
0.002
(0.005)
0.026**
(0.008)
-0.003
(0.006)
0.001
(0.003)
200-299-0.012*
(0.005)
0.030**
(0.010)
0.065***
(0.016)
0.075***
(0.009)
0.043***
(0.010)
0.001
(0.004)
0.018***
(0.005)
0.024***
(0.007)
0.012*
(0.005)
-0.007
(0.004)
0.076***
(0.010)
0.017*
(0.008)
0.065***
(0.014)
0.014
(0.009)
0.018**
(0.006)
300-3990.010
(0.008)
0.080***
(0.014)
0.085***
(0.019)
0.162***
(0.013)
0.078***
(0.014)
0.013*
(0.007)
0.031***
(0.007)
0.063***
(0.010)
0.042***
(0.008)
0.014
(0.008)
0.148***
(0.014)
0.019
(0.010)
0.143***
(0.020)
0.056***
(0.013)
0.049***
(0.009)
400-4990.008
(0.011)
0.086***
(0.016)
0.138***
(0.025)
0.198***
(0.016)
0.105***
(0.018)
0.040***
(0.009)
0.031***
(0.009)
0.135***
(0.015)
0.071***
(0.011)
0.046***
(0.011)
0.200***
(0.017)
0.012
(0.012)
0.190***
(0.024)
0.096***
(0.018)
0.058***
(0.012)
500+0.016
(0.013)
0.125***
(0.017)
0.125***
(0.026)
0.201***
(0.017)
0.124***
(0.018)
0.059***
(0.012)
0.075***
(0.013)
0.149***
(0.016)
0.128***
(0.013)
0.094***
(0.012)
0.249***
(0.016)
0.048***
(0.013)
0.283***
(0.028)
0.175***
(0.022)
0.126***
(0.015)
Locale
(ref=suburb)
City0.003
(0.005)
0.021*
(0.009)
-0.0001
(0.013)
-0.011
(0.008)
-0.004
(0.010)
0.029***
(0.006)
0.020***
(0.005)
-0.006
(0.007)
0.026***
(0.006)
0.035***
(0.006)
0.019*
(0.009)
-0.007
(0.007)
0.029*
(0.014)
0.0003
(0.008)
-0.007
(0.006)
Rural0.007
(0.005)
-0.031***
(0.008)
-0.047***
(0.013)
-0.049***
(0.008)
-0.039***
(0.010)
0.003
(0.004)
0.006*
(0.003)
-0.018**
(0.006)
-0.023***
(0.005)
-0.001
(0.004)
-0.040***
(0.008)
-0.045***
(0.007)
-0.024*
(0.010)
-0.031***
(0.007)
-0.024***
(0.006)
Town0.008
(0.005)
-0.021**
(0.007)
-0.048***
(0.012)
-0.051***
(0.008)
-0.031**
(0.010)
0.006
(0.004)
0.004
(0.003)
-0.013*
(0.006)
-0.015***
(0.004)
0.001
(0.004)
-0.040***
(0.008)
-0.037***
(0.006)
-0.030**
(0.011)
-0.020**
(0.007)
-0.024***
(0.005)
School Type
(ref=regular school)
Charter-0.001
(0.004)
0.006
(0.007)
0.006
(0.015)
0.017*
(0.007)
0.044***
(0.009)
0.006
(0.004)
-0.005
(0.003)
0.032***
(0.006)
-0.010*
(0.004)
0.004
(0.005)
0.028***
(0.006)
-0.005
(0.005)
-0.005
(0.009)
-0.001
(0.007)
0.012*
(0.005)
Magnet-0.006
(0.008)
-0.011
(0.011)
0.036*
(0.017)
0.014
(0.013)
-0.012
(0.012)
0.028***
(0.008)
0.014*
(0.007)
0.031**
(0.011)
0.017
(0.009)
-0.0002
(0.009)
-0.024
(0.014)
0.025*
(0.010)
-0.013
(0.015)
0.007
(0.011)
0.006
(0.009)
Distance (in 10 miles)-0.001***
(0.0001)
-0.0002***
(0.00005)
-0.002***
(0.0001)
-0.0004***
(0.0001)
-0.001***
(0.0001)
-0.0001*
(0.00002)
-0.0001***
(0.00003)
-0.001***
(0.00005)
-0.0003***
(0.00004)
-0.00005
(0.00004)
-0.002***
(0.0001)
-0.0002***
(0.00003)
-0.003***
(0.0002)
-0.0004***
(0.00005)
-0.0004***
(0.00004)
Constant0.020*
(0.008)
0.059***
(0.009)
0.136***
(0.016)
0.073***
(0.010)
0.080***
(0.012)
0.009
(0.007)
0.011
(0.007)
0.053***
(0.008)
0.048***
(0.007)
0.008
(0.006)
0.108***
(0.010)
0.080***
(0.009)
0.146***
(0.014)
0.060***
(0.009)
0.043***
(0.007)
Observations5,2557,0804,02014,9666,63011,0717,5959,11813,3959,5828,5289,2936,4237,74912,086
Akaike Inf. Crit.-8,194.420-1,519.028795.5404,098.966-2,687.272-15,443.180-14,152.570-4,444.550-8,207.670-9,137.670-3,973.770-3,464.868-1,616.831-2,627.812-5,393.591

Note: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001. Robust standard errors in parentheses. Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, alternative school, virtual school, or independent school; is an open status school and reports enrollment to the Federal Department of Education. Non-visited schools include only out-of-state schools in states that received at least one high school visit.

Cross-university results, out-of-state


Descriptive statistics for private high school visits

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit
Number of High Schools191,5351881,723831,2066812,7881441,2561302,444371,8521672,0593272,7801922,1521501,4142182,254669511721,8282852,660
Grade 12 Enrollment161701566414466125551235912364188691456414562134621646014963169601456214063
Percent Enrollment by Race
Black, Latinx, Native American21.122.516.924.817.223.817.021.116.622.016.421.016.720.614.620.817.521.413.522.816.121.316.123.014.920.115.321.915.022.0
White69.868.068.262.369.866.271.068.473.865.769.870.049.468.773.967.365.966.874.565.873.065.669.465.276.571.271.968.474.366.7
Black15.113.38.910.97.114.37.111.07.49.77.811.45.610.88.310.46.510.75.911.36.08.86.611.34.09.68.111.17.211.1
Latinx5.89.07.713.69.89.39.59.68.611.88.19.29.69.36.110.010.510.27.211.29.512.09.111.39.110.16.810.57.410.6
Native American0.20.30.40.30.30.30.40.50.50.40.60.41.40.60.20.30.40.50.50.30.60.40.40.31.80.40.40.30.30.3
Asian5.45.99.38.59.26.47.26.96.08.08.25.715.56.97.77.79.27.66.87.36.08.68.67.75.15.68.36.26.77.3
Other Race3.73.55.64.43.93.64.93.63.54.45.63.318.53.83.84.27.34.15.24.14.94.55.94.13.53.14.63.54.04.0
Locale
In a City0.320.370.430.450.250.290.490.380.650.440.570.380.540.380.490.430.520.410.600.380.570.410.470.410.620.420.410.410.470.41
In a Suburb0.680.450.500.400.660.490.410.380.290.300.360.400.300.450.440.370.420.390.330.410.410.340.420.400.290.330.520.400.450.40
In a Town0.000.040.010.030.000.040.020.070.000.080.010.060.030.040.020.050.010.060.000.060.020.090.010.050.020.100.010.040.010.05
In a Rural Area0.000.130.060.120.080.170.090.170.060.180.060.160.140.130.050.150.060.140.070.150.010.160.100.140.080.140.060.150.070.14

Note: Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, an alternative school, an early childhood center, or an independent school. Non-visited schools include only out-of-state schools in states that received at least one high school visit.

Cross-university results


Actual versus Proportional Visits to Out-of-State High Schools

Note: Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, alternative school, virtual school (public HS), early childhood center (private HS), or independent school; is an open status school and reports enrollment to the Federal Department of Education (public HS). Non-visited schools include only out-of-state schools in states that received at least one high school visit.

Cross-university results, in-state


Descriptive statistics for public high school visits

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit
Number of High Schools1433612531472299271132281241132441,1602321,1723534641811321732452091082161322173018546711990
Percent of High Schools28.471.663.236.819.880.233.166.952.347.717.482.616.583.543.256.857.842.241.458.665.934.162.137.987.912.128.471.656.943.1
Miles from University871033135351449810113113717125013121611915761108859811816861651121491311556580
Grade 12 Enrollment239169259186318118204971326644627246726919983257533132071353121415810127288134264127
Number Proficient-Math109761055930310353145120143741297718380911614171366179116581420576226112
Median Household Income ($000)$52$53$95$86$103$64$54$44$46$45$86$67$69$71$67$53$75$61$61$50$65$57$95$82$63$62$79$59$53$45
Percent Free or Reduced Lunch53.350.935.134.037.355.644.360.359.265.650.658.461.656.240.153.636.846.155.568.042.947.532.948.237.344.231.551.849.865.7
Percent Enrollment by Race
Black, Latinx, Native American38.841.642.640.537.745.033.038.824.726.854.959.768.456.922.021.137.734.650.152.217.514.221.833.613.815.615.725.642.152.5
White55.952.646.753.248.750.064.359.872.571.125.628.917.530.572.475.056.161.743.143.777.482.670.460.983.482.078.371.054.144.8
Black24.427.819.517.913.921.827.233.416.921.16.16.58.66.018.417.24.32.940.342.24.22.68.612.42.13.811.417.736.147.4
Latinx11.812.722.922.423.522.54.74.27.05.048.251.959.249.73.43.732.530.99.69.712.110.213.020.99.67.84.27.85.74.9
Native American2.71.10.10.10.40.71.21.30.80.60.61.20.61.20.10.11.00.80.20.21.21.40.20.32.14.00.10.10.30.3
Asian1.92.49.75.212.43.91.40.41.20.915.38.011.18.92.00.72.91.24.01.51.50.55.42.91.00.54.01.71.30.7
Other Race3.43.41.01.11.21.21.21.01.61.34.23.43.03.73.73.23.22.52.82.63.62.72.42.51.71.92.01.72.52.0
School Type
0/1 is a Charter School0.020.080.040.060.000.040.000.000.060.040.070.310.060.310.020.180.080.190.050.040.000.010.100.090.000.000.020.130.050.10
0/1 is a Magnet School0.020.040.000.000.030.010.040.030.010.020.120.090.150.090.000.000.010.010.090.080.010.000.000.000.000.000.010.000.190.14
0/1 is a Regular School0.960.880.960.940.960.940.960.970.930.940.810.600.780.600.980.820.910.800.860.880.990.990.900.911.001.000.970.870.760.77
Locale
In a City0.130.280.130.080.310.470.190.100.080.110.460.410.440.410.180.220.360.200.160.200.130.060.150.200.080.070.120.230.150.13
In a Suburb0.160.190.780.760.620.120.190.060.080.040.470.360.500.360.430.180.310.110.420.270.070.010.670.640.040.000.660.270.350.20
In a Town0.170.110.010.040.020.100.140.130.330.070.040.100.030.110.140.170.150.110.170.160.260.100.020.040.170.070.110.140.130.14
In a Rural Area0.540.410.080.120.050.310.490.720.510.780.030.130.030.130.250.420.180.590.250.360.540.830.160.120.710.870.100.360.370.52

Note: Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, alternative school, virtual school, or independent school; is an open status school and reports enrollment to the Federal Department of Education.

Cross-university results, in-state


Probability of in-state public high school receiving a visit

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Income
(ref=<$50k)
$50k-$74k-0.131**
(0.042)
-0.153
(0.106)
-0.025
(0.021)
-0.043
(0.057)
0.038
(0.078)
0.079***
(0.021)
-0.056*
(0.024)
0.090*
(0.035)
0.147*
(0.060)
-0.058
(0.062)
0.079
(0.070)
0.181
(0.103)
-0.020
(0.076)
0.007
(0.034)
0.019
(0.076)
$75k-$99k0.081
(0.102)
-0.140
(0.114)
-0.023
(0.035)
0.016
(0.117)
0.144
(0.274)
0.114***
(0.029)
-0.059*
(0.030)
0.319***
(0.051)
0.164*
(0.077)
-0.010
(0.115)
0.254***
(0.073)
0.114
(0.111)
-0.115
(0.107)
0.203***
(0.056)
0.177
(0.125)
$100k-$149k-0.145
(0.135)
-0.067
(0.121)
0.112***
(0.031)


0.097*
(0.042)
-0.092*
(0.041)
0.419***
(0.064)
0.129
(0.085)
0.096
(0.133)
0.264**
(0.093)
0.206
(0.112)
-0.049
(0.104)
0.323***
(0.074)
0.270
(0.142)
$150k-$199k
0.131
(0.146)
0.347***
(0.087)


0.352***
(0.097)
-0.251***
(0.062)


0.431***
(0.118)

0.288*
(0.141)

0.422***
(0.126)

$200k+
0.192
(0.156)
-0.009
(0.175)


-0.099
(0.131)
-0.292***
(0.056)




-0.625***
(0.137)



BL, LX, NA Enrollment
(ref=<20%)
20-39%-0.157**
(0.059)
0.079
(0.072)
0.165***
(0.038)
-0.046
(0.061)
-0.157
(0.084)
0.005
(0.044)
0.020
(0.032)
0.089
(0.058)
-0.021
(0.052)
0.045
(0.078)
0.016
(0.070)
0.024
(0.085)
0.052
(0.056)
0.034
(0.062)
0.227*
(0.104)
40-59%-0.064
(0.073)
0.189*
(0.093)
0.143*
(0.055)
-0.089
(0.084)
-0.123
(0.110)
0.069
(0.046)
0.087*
(0.034)
0.054
(0.072)
0.051
(0.076)
0.062
(0.083)
-0.009
(0.107)
0.033
(0.119)
-0.172
(0.133)
-0.043
(0.073)
-0.002
(0.103)
60-79%-0.068
(0.077)
0.252**
(0.087)
0.063
(0.061)
0.078
(0.103)
-0.041
(0.191)
0.046
(0.046)
0.118**
(0.038)
0.016
(0.082)
-0.032
(0.079)
0.132
(0.098)
-0.003
(0.116)
0.053
(0.132)
-0.136
(0.200)
-0.179*
(0.085)
-0.012
(0.130)
80-89%-0.117
(0.107)
0.073
(0.154)
-0.009
(0.060)
0.051
(0.131)
-0.320
(0.171)
0.069
(0.049)
0.124**
(0.047)
0.035
(0.079)
0.130
(0.108)
-0.070
(0.111)
0.132
(0.097)
-0.088
(0.146)
-0.272
(0.144)
-0.107
(0.082)
0.230
(0.130)
90%+-0.108
(0.086)
0.100
(0.113)
-0.116*
(0.055)
-0.241***
(0.065)
-0.136
(0.168)
0.166***
(0.049)
0.192***
(0.043)
0.244***
(0.074)
-0.054
(0.103)
0.250*
(0.103)

-0.172
(0.152)
-0.217
(0.298)
0.003
(0.067)
-0.102
(0.119)
# Math Proficient Students
(ref=<50)
50-990.006
(0.061)
0.112
(0.067)
0.043*
(0.018)
0.093
(0.100)
0.222
(0.122)
0.006
(0.032)
0.045
(0.036)
0.106*
(0.053)
0.118
(0.072)
0.153
(0.079)
-0.068
(0.049)
0.171
(0.102)
0.064
(0.069)
0.006
(0.037)
-0.150
(0.134)
100-1990.071
(0.093)
0.156*
(0.077)
0.134***
(0.039)
0.382**
(0.119)
-0.004
(0.196)
0.081
(0.042)
0.037
(0.045)
0.066
(0.071)
0.153*
(0.065)
0.278**
(0.098)
-0.179*
(0.071)
0.317*
(0.138)
0.001
(0.111)
0.213***
(0.056)
-0.340
(0.228)
200-2990.097
(0.148)
0.308***
(0.085)
0.182*
(0.089)
0.243
(0.169)
0.354
(0.199)
0.129*
(0.059)
0.125*
(0.062)
-0.024
(0.108)
0.097
(0.087)
0.319*
(0.141)
-0.236*
(0.095)
0.335
(0.179)
0.001
(0.173)
0.369***
(0.089)
-0.395
(0.261)
300-3990.017
(0.197)
0.230
(0.179)
0.357**
(0.116)

0.126
(0.300)
0.049
(0.088)
0.172
(0.093)
-0.060
(0.130)
0.093
(0.075)
0.489**
(0.182)

0.528*
(0.212)
-0.096
(0.184)
0.487***
(0.131)
-0.522
(0.305)
400+0.611
(0.391)
0.410***
(0.124)
0.599***
(0.157)

0.367
(0.343)
0.109
(0.140)
0.231
(0.124)
-0.099
(0.135)
0.088
(0.072)
0.352
(0.220)

0.618*
(0.251)
-0.135
(0.227)
0.548**
(0.177)
-0.849*
(0.374)
# G12 Students
(ref=<50)
50-990.189**
(0.058)
0.087
(0.119)
-0.029
(0.019)
0.165**
(0.056)
0.218**
(0.080)
-0.014
(0.019)
-0.009
(0.019)
0.115*
(0.050)
0.290***
(0.080)
0.207**
(0.077)
0.163
(0.084)
0.150
(0.117)
0.107
(0.087)
0.058
(0.035)
0.279*
(0.132)
100-1990.308***
(0.057)
0.229*
(0.113)
-0.045
(0.035)
0.272***
(0.064)
0.252*
(0.116)
0.015
(0.021)
-0.009
(0.022)
0.336***
(0.071)
0.436***
(0.098)
0.191**
(0.072)
0.391***
(0.071)
0.059
(0.135)
0.217
(0.118)
0.068
(0.047)
0.774***
(0.213)
200-2990.328***
(0.080)
0.240*
(0.122)
0.022
(0.080)
0.686***
(0.104)
0.325
(0.166)
0.083**
(0.032)
0.046
(0.033)
0.460***
(0.097)
0.534***
(0.100)
0.293***
(0.088)
0.461***
(0.081)
-0.043
(0.163)
0.391*
(0.168)
0.110
(0.068)
1.011***
(0.239)
300-3990.398***
(0.105)
0.291*
(0.119)
-0.083
(0.103)
0.435***
(0.131)

0.180***
(0.039)
0.121**
(0.042)
0.611***
(0.119)
0.554***
(0.092)
0.401***
(0.104)
0.554***
(0.088)
0.061
(0.191)
0.409*
(0.190)
0.142
(0.091)
1.025***
(0.272)
400-4990.277
(0.143)
0.243
(0.136)
-0.279
(0.150)
0.480**
(0.168)
0.635**
(0.195)
0.120**
(0.041)
0.112*
(0.044)
0.717***
(0.128)
0.552***
(0.099)
0.369**
(0.130)
0.597***
(0.098)
0.050
(0.219)
0.451*
(0.186)
0.105
(0.140)
1.336***
(0.299)
500+0.299
(0.207)
0.276
(0.143)
-0.129
(0.168)
0.760***
(0.168)
0.602*
(0.273)
0.195***
(0.041)
0.185***
(0.046)
0.455**
(0.163)
0.498***
(0.115)
0.265
(0.146)
0.665***
(0.129)
-0.117
(0.320)
0.589*
(0.233)
0.268
(0.166)
1.674***
(0.383)
Locale
(ref=suburb)
City-0.070
(0.063)
0.122
(0.097)
-0.218***
(0.049)
-0.209*
(0.095)
-0.301
(0.193)
0.006
(0.022)
-0.037
(0.024)
0.023
(0.059)
0.087
(0.061)
-0.058
(0.075)
0.075
(0.069)
0.033
(0.085)
-0.020
(0.071)
0.049
(0.056)
0.055
(0.092)
Rural0.114*
(0.056)
-0.125
(0.081)
-0.090*
(0.039)
-0.163
(0.093)
-0.044
(0.174)
-0.041
(0.029)
-0.072*
(0.031)
-0.129**
(0.044)
-0.130
(0.072)
-0.008
(0.071)
0.142*
(0.067)
0.034
(0.080)
0.273*
(0.126)
-0.173***
(0.045)
0.007
(0.087)
Town0.162*
(0.073)
-0.205
(0.151)
-0.119**
(0.039)
-0.213*
(0.105)
0.233
(0.165)
-0.042
(0.032)
-0.083**
(0.032)
-0.027
(0.050)
0.036
(0.091)
0.124
(0.087)
0.229**
(0.074)
-0.130
(0.182)
0.214
(0.128)
-0.036
(0.058)
-0.009
(0.116)
School Type
(ref=regular school)
Charter-0.071
(0.069)
-0.063
(0.122)
0.051
(0.034)

0.250
(0.161)
-0.047*
(0.020)
-0.071**
(0.024)
-0.180***
(0.052)
-0.169
(0.094)
0.135
(0.116)
-0.401***
(0.114)
0.217*
(0.094)

-0.072
(0.046)
0.196
(0.130)
Magnet-0.055
(0.092)

0.217**
(0.072)
0.099
(0.129)
0.042
(0.292)
-0.008
(0.036)
-0.006
(0.040)

0.354
(0.197)
0.024
(0.090)
0.141
(0.140)


0.376
(0.255)
0.048
(0.089)
Distance (in 10 miles)-0.010**
(0.004)
-0.006
(0.014)
-0.016***
(0.001)
-0.004
(0.005)
0.004
(0.006)
-0.007***
(0.001)
-0.0001
(0.001)
-0.018***
(0.002)
-0.002
(0.005)
-0.002
(0.005)
-0.005
(0.003)
-0.013
(0.010)
-0.005
(0.003)
-0.013***
(0.002)
-0.036***
(0.009)
Constant0.195
(0.100)
0.352
(0.181)
0.423***
(0.045)
0.314**
(0.117)
0.336
(0.193)
0.092
(0.052)
0.062
(0.053)
0.343***
(0.065)
0.183
(0.107)
-0.067
(0.125)
0.349***
(0.099)
0.227
(0.157)
0.657***
(0.164)
0.276***
(0.058)
0.282
(0.158)
Observations5044001,1563412371,4041,404817313418317348247652209
Akaike Inf. Crit.575.111541.538309.406364.784328.378994.3161,033.760798.974252.223563.412373.616475.712166.755480.002250.649

Note: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001; Robust standard errors in parentheses. Schools that satisfied the following criteria were included in the sample: offers grades 9-12 and enrolls at least ten students in each grade; located in the 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or land regulated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs; is not a special education school, alternative school, virtual school, or independent school; is an open status school and reports enrollment to the Federal Department of Education.

Cross-university results, in-state


Descriptive statistics for community college visits

NC State Rutgers Stony Brook Alabama Arkansas UC Berkeley UC Irvine Cincinnati CU Boulder Georgia Kansas UMass Nebraska Pittsburgh S.Carolina
Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit Visit Nonvisit
Number of Colleges43171861061233141093349829156014312615111513621039219
Percent of Colleges71.728.375.025.014.185.988.511.558.341.773.226.877.222.820.080.082.417.63.796.357.742.353.646.475.025.020.479.69.590.5
Miles from University1119738274417510411914814924023019022315514994763411216013559631361461441377170
Enrollment by FTE3,4032,1506,46336412,4151,9312,6649601,5461,4688,6583,3748,8101,9504,7288734,1191,3482,5323,7542,9531,0554,0873124,6541896,2988202,5193,378
Median Household Income ($000)$44$42$84$87$93$57$36$50$39$38$73$58$73$57$43$50$49$43$50$38$47$49$68$79$41$37$67$55$35$37
Percent Pell62.768.052.348.059.264.264.950.771.176.149.757.549.958.460.864.854.931.761.076.149.657.557.953.951.263.547.964.770.066.1
Percent Enrollment by Race
Black, Latinx, Native American29.530.040.234.051.927.435.954.625.235.753.453.353.652.416.413.129.039.022.941.527.924.032.623.519.351.117.413.745.641.0
White61.857.443.856.832.860.459.041.670.857.223.228.622.930.473.982.256.237.371.547.161.062.055.567.269.545.667.381.045.352.0
Black18.623.715.213.619.017.431.250.617.627.76.07.75.98.310.611.16.16.37.139.611.910.012.821.14.20.010.39.041.736.3
Latinx8.66.124.520.232.511.33.82.67.06.946.948.447.347.25.32.221.731.415.26.914.312.819.54.314.43.96.55.33.24.2
Native American2.32.00.40.10.40.60.91.30.61.10.50.60.40.80.50.21.31.30.60.41.71.20.40.00.847.20.60.10.80.5
Asian1.61.24.53.38.41.41.00.20.51.011.76.211.84.70.80.81.62.31.21.81.51.33.91.61.40.02.11.21.21.0
Other Race6.17.99.56.04.37.43.53.23.15.76.26.06.26.17.93.28.720.42.52.86.710.25.84.36.53.312.52.96.85.8
Locale
In a City0.230.180.110.000.400.160.300.330.070.300.440.350.470.240.330.120.360.670.000.350.130.180.330.000.500.000.200.130.000.32
In a Suburb0.160.120.440.830.600.340.000.330.070.100.440.380.440.380.130.270.210.001.000.230.000.000.470.920.000.000.500.360.500.16
In a Town0.280.240.060.000.000.160.350.000.500.400.020.120.010.170.200.220.360.000.000.230.600.640.070.000.500.000.100.210.000.26
In a Rural Area0.330.470.390.170.000.330.350.330.360.200.100.150.080.210.330.400.070.330.000.190.270.180.130.080.001.000.200.310.500.26

Note: We define community college as any public, 2-year or public, less-than 2-year institution, which could be a campus of a Title IV institution.

Appendix


State Revenue and Tuition Revenue per FTE Student, 2003-04 to 2016-17

Note: FTE student count is based on reported full-time equivalent undergraduate enrollment; State revenue is the sum of state appropriations, operating grants and contracts, and non-operating grants; Tuition revenue is defined as revenue from tuition and fees after deducting discounts and allowances.

Appendix


Percent Out-of-State Freshmen and Federal Grant Recipient, 2003-04 to 2016-17

Note: Percent out-of-state freshmen is calculated for first-time degree-seeking undergraduate students based on state of residence at time of admission; Percent federal grant recipient is defined as percent of full-time, first-time degree-seeking undergraduates in full-year cohort who are awarded federal grant aids. 2007-08 federal grant recipient data for Rutgers University-New Brunswick is omitted due to concerns for data accuracy.

Appendix


Percent Black 18-yo in State and Freshmen Enrollment, 2010-11 to 2016-17

Note: Freshmen enrollment is defined as full-time and part-time first-time students. NIH race categories are defined by origin (Hispanic, Non-Hispanic) and race (White, Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander), while IPEDS categories include White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska, two or more races, unknown races, and nonresident alien; We count all race categories in the total when calculating the percentage for each data source.

Appendix


Percent Latinx 18-yo in State and Freshmen Enrollment, 2010-11 to 2016-17

Note: Freshmen enrollment is defined as full-time and part-time first-time students. NIH race categories are defined by origin (Hispanic, Non-Hispanic) and race (White, Black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander), while IPEDS categories include White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska, two or more races, unknown races, and nonresident alien; We count all race categories in the total when calculating the percentage for each data source. We use Latinx as a gender-inclusive alternative to Latino or Latina. We also use Latinx in place of Hispanic within secondary data sources.

Appendix


Number of High School Graduates in State, 2000-01 to 2019-20

Note: High school graduates may include graduates from any point of each acacdemic year, from fall through the summer. Private high school data is only available on a biennial basis; Projected data for private high schools start from 2015-16 on and are produced based on data up to the 2010-11 academic year.